Wound Pathogen and Antibiotic Resistance Markers by PCR

Wound Pathogen and Antibiotic Resistance Markers by PCR

Test & Test Panel: Test: Wound PCR

Test Panel:

Acinetobacter baumannii Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus
Anaerococcus prevotii Peptostreptococcus anaerobius
Bacteroides fragilis Prevotella bivia
Bacteroides vulgatus Prevotella loescheii
Candida alibcans Proteus mirabilis
Citrobacter freundii Proteus vulgaris
Clostridium perfringens Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Clostridium septicum Salmonella enterica (2 subspecies)
Corynebacterium striatum Serratia marcescens
Enterobacter aerogenes Staphylococcus aureus
Enterobacter cloacae Staphylococcus epidermidis
Enterococcus faecalis Staphylococcus haemolyticus
Enterococcus faecium Staphylococcus lugdunensis
Escherichia coli Staphylococcus saprophyticus
Finegoldia magna Streptococcus agalactiae
Klebsiella oxytoca Streptococcus pyogenes
Klebsiella pneumoniae Streptococcus pneumoniae
AMRs Associated Antibiotic(s)
ACC Cephalosporins, Monobactams, Penams
ampC Cephalosporins, Cephamycins, Penicillins
BIL/LAT/CMY Cephalosporins, Cephamycins, Penicillins
CTX-M (groups 1, 2, 8, 9, and 25) Cephalosporins (extended spectrum)
dfrA5/dfrA1 Diaminopyrimidines
DHA Cephalosporins, Cephamycins
FOX Cephalosporins, Cephamycins
GES Carbapenems, Cephalosporins, Penams
IMP-1 group, IMP-16, IMP-7 Carbapenems, Cephalosporins, Cephamycins, Penams, Penems
KPC Carbapenems, Cephalosporins, Monobactams, Penams
mcr-1 Peptides
mecA Penams
MOX/CMY Cephalosporins Cephamycins, Penams
nfsA Nitrofurans
OXA1 Cephalosporins, Carbapenems, Penams
OXA-23, OXA-72, OXA-40, blaOXA-48 Cephalosporins, Carbapenems, Penams
PER-1/PER-2 Cephalosporins, Carbapenems, Monobactams, Penams, Penems
QnrA/QnrS/QnrB Fluoroquinolones
SHV Carbapenems, Cephalosporins, Penams
Sul1/Sul2 Sulfonamides
TEM Cephalosporins, Monobactams, Penams, Penems
tetB/tetM/tetS Tetracyclines
vanA1/vanA2/vanB Glycopeptides
VEB Cephalosporins, Monobactams
VIM Carbapenems, Cephalosporins, Cephamycins, Penams, Penems
Submission Criteria: Specimen: Wound Swab

  • Specimens should be collected as soon as possible during illness and before antimicrobial therapy begins, preferably within 72 hours of symptom onset.
  • Needle aspirates or biopsy specimens are currently not accepted for Wound PCR.


  1. Eswab (Liquid Amies) Media
  2. Molecular Transport Media (MTM)
Storage and Stability:
Time Eswab 
2 Hours Room Temperature (20-25°C)
48 Hours 2-8°C
Time MTM 
5 Days Room Temperature (18-25°C) OR 2-8°C
Rejection Criteria: Rejection criteria include but are not limited to:

  1. Mismatched requisitions.
  2. Specimens without patient identifiers.
  3. Specimens stored or shipped incorrectly.
  4. Specimens collected using expired reagents.
  5. Specimens with inappropriate preservatives such as formalin or formaldehyde, disinfectant, or detergent added.
  6. Specimens not analyzed within the appropriate time frame.
  7. Specimens with quantity not sufficient to test (0.5mL minimum).
  8. Specimens contaminated with fecal matter.
  9. Specimens submitted without approval.
  10. Samples not shipped at appropriate temperature.
  11. Samples without two proper identifiers or samples having identifiers that do not match the electronic or paper lab requisition.
Turnaround Time: 24 hours
Clinical Significance: Bacterial/fungal infections of wounds can stall healing and lead to life-threatening complications such as cellulitis, osteomyelitis, and septicemia. Wound infections may present with pain, swelling, fever, erythema, and a purulent discharge.
Reference Ranges: Not Detected for all targets on panel.
Method: Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
Applied Biosystems/Life Technologies QuantStudio 12K Flex qPCR System